Glossary

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A

Antifungal:Substance that destroys fungi and yeasts that cause fungal infections.

C

Clinical tests:tests of a product before it is marketed carried out on healthy volunteers corresponding to a specific group of consumers, with the aim of verifying the innocuousness of the product.

Coeliac disease:Disease characterised by a permanent intolerance to various protein fractions of gluten contained in various types of cereal such as wheat (common wheat and spelt), barley and rye.

Cosmetics Europe:European trade association for the cosmetic, toiletry and perfumery industry representing the interests of more than 4000 companies at European level. https://www.cosmeticseurope.eu/about-cosmetics-europe.html

Cosmetics product information file:In the context of European cosmetics regulations, the person responsible for placing a cosmetic on the market (its manufacturer or importer) must ensure the consumer's safety. It must therefore compile a file for each cosmetic product that it places on the market, and which must be made available to the competent authorities.
The file contains all the necessary information relating to quality, formula, raw materials and the safety assessment of the product carried out by an expert (e.g.: toxicologist).

Cosmetovigilance:Ongoing monitoring and analysis of potential adverse effects of cosmetics on human health.

E

EEU Scientific Committee for Consumer Safety:The committee advises on the risks to health and safety (chemical, biological, mechanical and other physical risks) of non-food consumer products (e.g. cosmetic products and their ingredients, bodily hygiene products), and consumer services (e.g. tattoos, fake tanning, etc.) http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_s/

H

Hormone:Biological substance produced by special cells and secreted in the blood, which transmits messages within the body and affects how the organs work. Hormones are needed to regulate the functioning of the body.

Hormone receptor:is a protein to which a specific hormone can bind. The latter plays the role of a signal (stimulus) that triggers a hormonal process in response..

I

IFRA :International Fragrance Association http://www.ifraorg.org/

Innocuousness:Having no harmful or toxic effect.

In silico:Test using mathematical modelling

Intrinsic hazard:The inherent capacity of a substance to cause harm to a person or environment. This should not be confused with risk, which is the probability of this harm occurring, and which is therefore dependent on exposure to the hazard.

In vitro:(Latin for "in glass"). Refers to any biological experiment carried out outside the body. Opposite of in vivo.

In vivo:(Latin for "within the living"). Refers to any biological experiment or reaction occurring in the living organism. Opposite of in vitro.

L

Leave-on product:Cosmetic product that stays in extended contact with the skin or hair.

M

Microbial contamination:The presence in excessive quantities of microbes and bacteria, some of which are pathogenic to humans

Microbiological protection:The set of processes that prevent bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms from developing in a product.

O

Oestrogens:Female hormones secreted by the ovaries and which control the ovulation phase (e.g.: oestradiol).

Oxidization (redox):Chemical reaction with oxygen in which a chemical element (called the "reducing agent") transfers an electron to an oxygen atom that belongs to an element called the "oxidizing agent".

P

Predictive evaluation:A predictive evaluation is used to ensure the safety and effectiveness of cosmetic products and their ingredients, before they are produced synthetically, and without in vivo experimentation. It is a comprehensive approach that uses data assets and is enhanced by tools and techniques such as reconstructed human skin, modelling of molecules, statistics and imaging.

Predictive tests:See "Predictive evaluation"

Protein:Macromolecule comprised of a chain of amino acids and produced by the cells (the word "protein" comes from the Greek prôtos meaning "first").

R

Raw materials:all substances of plant, animal, mineral or synthetic origin used in the manufacture of ingredients comprising cosmetic products.

Rinse-off product:Cosmetic product intended to be removed immediately after application, using wate

Risk:The probability that an adverse effect will occur due to an intrinsic hazard. Risk and hazard should not be confused. For example, even if a substance has hazardous properties, the risk to human health or to the environment can be controlled if exposure to the substance is controlled.

S

Surfactants:Substances that reduce surface tension between two media (two liquids or a liquid and a solid for example) and therefore contribute to the emulsifying, foaming and/or wetting effect of cosmetic products.

Synthetic substance:A compound manufactured by man using a chemical reaction.

T

Toxicology:Science that studies toxic substances, in particular sources and means of contamination, as well as the effects of toxins on organisms and methods of detecting and preventing these effects.

U

Ultraviolet (UV):Part of the spectrum of solar radiation, characterised by small but very energetic wavelengths and therefore capable of causing damage to the epidermis and dermis.